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    jibrin ubale yahaya

    Jibrin Ubale Yahaya
    Nasarawa State University, Keffi.
    Department of Political Science.
    Social change as a process may bring changes in the function of a social system which includes changes in nature of social institutions, social behavior and social relations. Social change can be drive from cultural, religious, economic, political, scientific and technological forces. This paper has given us a picture on how non violent mechanism can brings about peace in the society. The violent and non-violent conflicts are also presented as opposite and contradictory. The paper intended to review various relevant researchers on the subject matter, the paper adopted urban industrial impact theory and Deprivation theory to explain how lives of peoples in rural areas are need for social adjustment and they are denied the right of basic social amenities this lead for migration from rural to urban areas to seek for a better life. The paper also assesses how the peaceful and non-violent method of conflict resolution can contribute to address the problems of destructive violence in the society.
    Keywords: Violent Change, Non violence Mechanism, Societal transformation, Conflict Resolution, Peace Building.

    Social change is evitable that cannot be avoided by any society but difficult to overcome as a result of periodic process that change requires to fulfill. The essence of social change is a process of social activities changing from traditional way of life to a new method of social life, economic activities and political activities. Many scholars has different perspectives on the practice of Social change, let us look at some definitions by scholars Moore (1967) cited in Richard (2006), social change as a significant alteration over time in behaviour patterns and culture including norms and values. Certainly, the dramatic rise in formal education represents a change that has profound social consequences. Other social changes that have had long-term and important consequences include the emergence of slavery as a system of stratification, the industrial revolution, the increased participation of women in paid labor and the world wide population explosion. From this definition we can understand that social change cover various areas of human endeavor but formal education is the most effective tool that move the society from darkness of non progressive circle to a society that has focus and determination for sustainable development.
    Dennis Sandole (1999) has pointed out that the reason for many social conflicts continuing becomes less a matter of the original goal incompatibility and more a matter of becoming trapped and resistance of change. The conflict continue escalate today because the conflict was there yesterday, rather in the manner of a classical feud between Montagues and Capulets, all these are related with the demand for social adjustment by groups and individuals in the society. Some many writers has view the movement of social change from the concept of “dynamic stability”, and there are enough examples of such a pattern of interaction in protracted social conflicts to justify an urgent need to understand the reasons for conflict perpetuation and to ask questions about the obstacles to change, once a conflict has reached the stage of a reactive exchange of blows, malevolences and other “bads”. Some of the literature on “spoilers” Stedman (1997) makes a start at answering fundamental questions about obstacles to change in the direction of conflict transformation, but the general problem remains: What are some of the obstacles to change that themselves need changing before a protracted conflict can begin to move towards a resolution; who might be able to bring about needed changes, and how?
    One of the fundamental issue in this paper is to raise the question of what brought about social change that may lead to either violent or non-violent actions and the effect of non violent method in resolving differences or conflict in the society. Secondarily, the paper will try to identifying the nature of social change in the society and the need to find out the causative factor that brings about the needed change. Thirdly the argument raised in this paper is to evaluate effect of change either violent and nonviolent, so that to examine the causes as well as the result that the change can bring will it negative or positive , those changes that transform society through peaceful means can brings to a better movement to good position of either economy, social and political status while the other change that can brings about violence, conflict may result to broken social relations and disagreement in the society.
    Change and Conflict Formation
    In this section the paper will gives impression on the concept of social change and other related relevant elements involves in the social change process as well as issues of conflict and peaceful means or non-violent method of addressing violence or conflict in the society.
    Social Change
    Many scholars has various p understanding on the concept of social change, according to Harambos and Holborn (2004), social change is a process by which alterations occur in the structure and function of a social system (social group, community etc.) Any change that occurs either in ideas, norms, values, role and social habits of a group or in the composition of organization of their society can be referred to as social change. Social change may include changes in nature, social institutions, social behaviors, or social relations. Social change may be driven by cultural, religious, economic, scientific or technological forces.
    Change may come from two sources. One source is random or unique factors such as climate, weather, or the presence of specific groups of people. Another source is systematic factors. For example, successful development has the same general requirements, such as a stable and flexible government, enough free and available resources, and a diverse social organization of society. On the whole, social change is usually a combination of systematic factors along with some random or unique factors (Richard, 2006).
    Social change can also be seen as a significant alteration over time in behavior patterns and culture, including norms and values (Nash, 2001). But what constitutes a “significant” alteration? Certainly, the dramatic rise in formal education represents a change that has had profound social consequences. Other social changes that have had long- term and important consequences include the emergence of slavery as a system of stratification, the industrial revolution, the increased participation of women in paid labor forces and the worldwide population explosion. Social movements have played an important role in promoting social change (Della & Diani, 1999).
    Looking at the definition’s of Richard, we can understand that change can be emerge from either unique or random source which is natural either through weather change or climate or by systematic source by need of having a decent leadership that will satisfied the need of his immediate society.
    Forms of Forms of Social Change
    Change is dynamic looking at the forces that may lead to the society request for the change for a better living
     Education: society may change as a result of having any knowledge either vocational education that will help them from traditional method of conducting social business.
     Change as a result of policies: policies of government at a given particular time can bring about change in the society especially the policies that can change the lives of peoples for a better.
     Changes as a result of changes in culture: as from time to time societal culture can get some little element of change as a result of interaction with other people with different culture because no society can live in isolation.
    However, looking at the above forms of change in the society, education is the vital tool that can raised peoples to change as result of new knowledge or experience gain, secondarily, policies of government is also a source form of change where policies of government, reforms in legal sector, economy, political institutions and other social institutions can brings change in the society. Thirdly, change may occur as a result of society living together with one another peoples from different cultural background may learn some aspect of cultural values from each other.

    Agents of Social Change
    The aspect of agents of change is like looking for motivators that can drive to social change, according to Richard (2006), the following can bring about Social change:
     Invention
     Diffusion
     Discovery
     Religious institutions
     Urbanization
     Government policies
     Application of science and technology
    Richard in his work has highlighted the major drivers on social changes in the society is drive from invention, diffusion, discovery, religious institutions, urbanization and government policies.

    Goals of Social Change Activity
    The goal of social change has been cited by Joseph E. Ogbah (2006) in his wrie –up community development and social change.
    Resistance: Action to defend or protect established everyday life from new, outside oppression and return things to normal. A society is considered more “free” the more that people are safe from new oppression. Typically, groups that have thrown off their oppressors or have achieved a certain level of privilege resist any change that might restrain their freedom. Resistance can therefore be quite reactionary.
    Liberation (Empowerment): Action to overcome on-going, traditional oppression and achieve the full measure of everyday rights and opportunities promised in the social charter (“social justice”). A society is more “just” the more that every person can obtain the freedoms that others enjoy.

    Democratization (Enfranchisement): Action to spread decision-making power broadly to everyone affected by those decisions. A society is more “democratic” the more that people can influence and decide the important issues that affect them without extraordinary effort (that is, through their daily routine).

    Humanization: Action to ensure that society will defend or protect the rights of everyone in society, especially those who cannot do so on their own behalf (such as those who are ignorant, powerless, sick, frail, mentally incompetent, young, or unborn). A society is more “humane” or “altruistic” the more that every person is protected and supported through the routine, everyday activities of others (including societal institutions).

    In taking the aforementioned actions, Richards (2006), pointed out that three activists exist namely:

    i) Social Change Activists: Those who actively and consciously work for social change.

    ii) Self-interested Activists: Those who work to resist oppression directed at them, liberate themselves from their own oppression, or enfranchise themselves or their immediate group.

    iii) Altruistic Activists: Those who work to free others from oppression, to enfranchise others to make societal decisions, or to make their society more humane.

    Concept of Conflict
    Conflict has been defined in several ways by many authors, considering of various factors or variables that are related or connected to violence or misunderstanding between conflicting parties, but the reasons of this paper let us view the opinion of some scholars who help us to have a clear understanding of the concept.
    Salau (2002), can be defined as the behavior intended to obstruct the achievement of some other persons’ goals. Conflict is therefore a product of incompatibility of goals and it arises from opposing behaviors.
    Thomen (2006) defines conflict as the process which begins when one party perceived that the other is trying to frustrate him or her. It involves situation in which differences are expressed by interdependent people in the process of achieving their needs. It also arises when a difference between two or more people necessitates changes in at least one person in order for their engagement to continue and develop. According to Baldridge (2007), conflict is a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure, or eliminate the rivals. Duetsch (1993) states that conflict exists whenever incompatible activities occur in an action which prevents, obstructs, interferes with, injures, or in some way makes it less likely or less effective for others to have their ways. According to Schmidt and Kochan (2002), conflict simply refers to any perceived opportunity which can exist for interfering with the other’s goal attainment. Also, Hocker and Wilmot (1995) define conflict from a communication point of view as an expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce rewards and interference from the other party in achieving their goals.
    In Chinese culture, Yusuf (2001) opines that conflict means opportunity for changes”. To this end, it is important to note that every conflict sustained might create an opportunity for change and development if the conflict is managed constructively.
    Conflict is also seen as a disagreement through which the parties involved perceive threat to their needs, interests or concerns, it also occurs whenever people disagree over their values, motives, perceptions, ideas or desires (Harrey, 1998). However, conflict is more than a mere disagreement; it is a meaningful experience in peoples’ lives and a normal experience within the work environment. It is to a large extent, predictable situations that naturally arise in any organization.
    From the above definitions of scholars, we can understand conflict is social activities that demonstrate the causes of war, fight, oppression, inequality aggression; crisis and suppression that some time may lead to factors that characterized with broken social relations between conflicting parties and damage of lives and properties.
    Types of Conflicts
    For the purpose of this paper let us identify some categories or types of Conflicts we witness in our daily day activities:
    Intra-Personal Conflicts
    This is types of Conflict that occurs within an individual for instance conflict of choice of time, partner, goals and needs. In the process of satisfying the needs of individuals within ourselves conflicts emerge.
    Inter-Personal Conflicts
    This is conflicts between two or more individuals over attaining a certain desire or a goal that can result to conflict.
    Intra-Group Conflicts
    This is a conflict between individuals or disagreement and misunderstanding within a particular social group.
    Inter-Group Conflicts
    This is a conflict between various groups from different social identities for instance Yaruba group tribe and Igbo group tribe.
    National Conflicts
    Conflicts within a nation, involving different groups within the country, this can be conflict within interethnic, inter-religious and other tribe’s conflicts.
    International Conflict
    This is a conflict between nations, States as a result of territory, economic reason or power retention to achieve a certain national goal.
    Conflict management strategies and Techniques
    The essence of conflict management is a kind of activity that was aimed at assisting the conflicting parties to meet a level of understanding from the initial conflicting views where the parties agree to avoid crisis and violence but accept compromise and cooperative attitude towards attaining peaceful environment. According to Ramin, (2011) views, conflict management as interference in an ongoing conflict process with the objectives of reducing the level of destruction and violence; and preventing its escalation into other areas. Just as causes of conflicts are diverse so also are the strategies to curb or manage it. While scholars like Thomas and Kilman, (2007) identified five conflict management styles: competitive; collaborative; compromising; avoiding; and accommodating. However, Goldfien & Robbennolt (2007) opined that the dual thrust model of conflict management is based on two underlying themes: pro-self (that is concern for self) or pro-social (that is concern for others) goals and that the interaction between these two themes gives rise to the five conflict management strategies which are:
    1. Avoidance as conflict management strategy Techniques :
    Conflict manager who adopt this style allow the conflict to phase out on its own through inaction and passivity. This conflict management approach is usually adopted when the manager is not concerned about their own outcomes (pro-self) or that of others (pro-social) (Goldfien & Robbennolt, 2007). Avoiding has the advantage of giving time to better prepare and collect information before acting and is a low stress approach when the conflict duration is short. On the other hand, withdrawing may lead to weakening or losing of position as it may be interpreted as agreement, which may make matters worse. Where there are many stakeholders, withdrawing may negatively affect relationship with another party that expects the action of the conflict manager. Also important decisions may end up being made by default.
    2. Accommodating conflict management strategy Techniques:
    The accommodating approach, this is adopted when conflict managers are determined to meet the needs of others and have a general concern for maintaining stable, positive social relationships and harmony (Forsyth, 2009). It sometimes enhances the protection of more important interests while giving up on less important ones, as well as provides the opportunity of reassessing the situation from other angles. The approach could leave the adopter subject to abuse as opponents may always expect shifting of grounds in their favour. This strategy may turn off some supporters as credibility and influence can be lost.
    c) Competitive conflict management strategy Techniques:
    This approach involves the use of force to get the other party to accept the conflict manager’s view. This strategy maximizes self assertiveness and minimizes empathy (that is concern for others). The conflict managers see conflict as a challenge of win or lose. The benefits of this approach are that it provides a quick resolution to a conflict and increases self esteem. However, the shortcomings of this style are that it could escalate the conflict and the relationship between the parties would be negatively affected. This approach might require a lot of expenses or resources and does not allow the conflict manager to take advantage of the strong points of the opponent’s position. More so, losers might want to retaliate.
    d )Cooperation conflict management strategy Techniques:
    Collaborative approach, it is adopted when the conflict managers are highly interested in both their own outcomes and the outcomes of others. This style sees conflict as a creative opportunity of which investment in time and resources could find a win-win solution (Forsyth, 2009). It might require structural changes as other possible alternatives in resolving the conflict are reviewed given available information at hand and unwanted options are discarded. Decisions usually take careful consideration and analysis. The merits of this approach is to pilots actual problem solving, reinforces mutual trust and respect, and provides a base for effective future collaboration, Notwithstanding, the pickle of all parties must be committed to finding a mutually acceptable solution and this might be more tasking and time consuming compared to other methods. Also this strategy might be impractical when a quick response is needed.
    e) Conciliation conflict management strategy:
    Compromising approach, this approach is adopted when conflict managers’ value fairness and in doing so, anticipate mutual give-and-take interactions. This approach enhances faster issue resolution, reduces tension and friction till a win-win solution could be achieved. However the cons are that it could result in a loss-loss situation if initial demands are too great. It also does not contribute to trust building in the long run as it could spawn cynicism if there is no commitment to honor. Important values and long term objectives could be derailed in the process. This strategy requires close monitoring and control to ensure agreements are met.
    It is pertinent to state here that effective conflict management strategies are not completely determined by concerns for self or concern for others but might be sensitive to value judgment of other variables such as culture, value system, religious belief etc., hence the use of traditional rulers and clergies in conflict resolution.
    f. ) Mediation Conflict management techniques
    This process sometimes called conciliation; is a means by which a third party, the mediator attempts to reconcile the differences between the contesting parties. The mediator may try to maintain constructive discussion, search for common area of agreement and suggest compromises. However, the mediator’s decisions are not binding and need not be accepted by the contesting parties. Mediation has been view by the United Nation University of Peace ‘’as voluntarily, informal, non binding process undertaken by an external party that foster the settlement of differences or demands between directly invested parties’’. (Quoted in Miller, 2003:23) Mediators manage a negotiation process but does not impose solution the parties. In the mediation process the parties to conflict must agreed to solve the pending social, economic or political problem the lead to conflict situation.
    g.) Conciliation Conflict Management Techniques
    A conciliator has the skill to communicate separately with parties in conflict and assist the parties to under standard themselves and reduce the tension through various advocacies. Conciliation is a third party activity, which covers intermediary efforts aimed at persuading the parties to a conflict to achieve a peaceful means of resolving differences. Miller , (2003:6-7) has the opinion that conciliation as ‘’ the voluntary referral of a conflict to a neutral external party, which either suggests a nonbinding settlement or conducts explorations to facilitate more structures or techniques of conflict resolution’’. The conciliator has the technical knowledge to facilitate peaceful resolution with conflicting parties.
    h.)Arbitration Conflict Management Techniques
    This another types of conflict management which requires the intervention of third party to resolve the conflict or differences through the assistance of a neutral third party in conflict situation. The arbitrator has the comfort to listen to evidences from both two parties and the third party offer decision which usually refers as’’ award’’ which is expected to be bided by all the parties concern. In this aspect the conflict parties agree to submit to third party intervener and accept the outcomes of the final decision by the arbitrator.
    Different Approaches to Social Change
    In his own contribution, Ramis (2000) cited in Richards (2006), explained the following approaches to change:
    i) Social Development Approach: This approach aims at improving the personal qualities of the individuals in the community and not material possessions. It involves the integration of social and economic development programmes along with mass literacy.

    ii) Community Work Group Approach: This approach places emphasis on group social action, which has more impact on the community than the individual. The community members are mobilized to think together, plan together and execute together as a people.

    iii) Idealistic process: This approach focuses on mobilizing the youths and the young ones to participate in group social action. All the youths in a given area are sensitized to see the need to get actively involved in developmental projects and programmes that will bring about needed change.

    iv) Agricultural Extension Approach: This approach utilizes educational and motivational procedure to achieve rural community transformation from traditional to a more productive economy. The idea is to educate the rural people on their potentials especially in the area of agriculture.

    The dimensions of Social Change

    The following are the dimensions of change according to Richard (2006):

    Violence versus Nonviolence

    Violent social change- this is violence through the use of physical, economic, or emotional violence that can threat to destroy opponents or force him to change a certain behavior in the society.

    Nonviolent social change – this is a change that can be applicable not use a force but to uses either Verbal talks, manipulations , peaceful demonstrations or uses of other non-physically violent means to force opponents to change their behavior.

    Concept of Nonviolent Social Change

    The concept of nonviolent change can be drive from the society bringing changes without destructive tendencies of violent behavior. The nonviolent method of social change gives space for society to understand the significant and important of social adjustment from one social level to another. The relevance of nonviolence method of change in the society gives birth to understanding between the contending parties of change movers and change receivers. The essence of nonviolent process of change is to bring social adjustment in a peaceful means. The nonviolent means of change has a dimension of passive nature where the movers to bring change without harming any one while the active nonviolence change aimed at elimination of social harms like racism, classism that affect the lives of society from various aspect of economic, social and political institutions.
    The Relevance of Urban Industrial Impact Theory, Deprivation Theory to this paper.

    This paper has look at the above two theory in relation to the aspect of social change in the lives of many people’s living rural areas in Nigeria but due to lack of facilities and given of poor attention to agricultural sector by policymaker, motivate many energetic youth migrate from rural areas to urban centers looking for survival. This theory emphasizes that the nearer the locations of agricultural production to urban areas, the greater the probability of increased agricultural output, employment, incomes and development. This is because nearness to urban areas reduces transportation cost of both output and input and creates an expanded market for agricultural products, thus encouraging specialization (Molton & Thompson, 1995).


    i. Nearness to urban centers does not necessarily mean increased agricultural output.

    ii. There will be labor migration to urban centers and also land speculation emerges.

    Deprivation theory
    This Theory argues that social movements have their foundations among people who feel deprived of some good(s) or resource(s). According to this approach, individuals who are lacking some good, service, or comfort are more likely to organize a social movement to improve (or defend) their conditions (Habermas, 1981).
    There are two significant problems with this theory. First, since most people feel deprived at one level or another almost all the time, the theory has a hard time explaining why the groups that form social movements do when other people are also deprived. Second, the reasoning behind this theory is circular – often the only evidence for deprivation is the social movement. If deprivation is claimed to be the cause but the only evidence for such is the movement, the reasoning is circular. This theory also gives us the light on how rural populaces are deprived of some basic necessities of lives which make the rural areas difficult areas for human survival and react to need for change.
    Expected Changes in Rural Areas
    The expected changes in rural areas are derived from the indices of development. Consequently, the expected changes according to Habermas, (1981) are as follows:

    i) Increase in per capita income among the rural dwellers.

    ii) More even distribution of income among the rural dwellers.
    iii) Reduction in the level of unemployment in rural areas.

    iv) Diversification of the rural economy.

    v) Increase in the supply of high level manpower (education) in rural areas.

    vi) Balanced development in rural areas.

    vii) Indigenization of economic activity in rural areas.

    viii) Good health and standard nutrition among the rural dwellers.
    ix) Acquisition of technology in rural areas.

    x) Abundance of peace, love and security in rural areas.

    Measurement of Change in Rural Areas

    According to Habermas, (1981) change can be measured in the rural areas by considering the following through survey methods of investigation:

    i) Increase in per capita income among the rural dwellers.
    ii) More even distribution of income among the rural dwellers.

    iii) Reduction in the level of unemployment in rural areas.
    iv) Diversification of the rural economy.

    v) Increase in the supply of high level manpower (education) in rural areas.

    vi) Balanced development in rural areas.

    vii) Indigenization of economic activity in rural areas.
    viii) Good health and standard nutrition among the rural dwellers.

    ix) Acquisition of technology in rural areas.

    Resistant Forces of Change
    Resistant and Conductive forces of Change according to Jasper (1997) cited in Richards (2006) are as follows:

    i) Rapid Scientific and Technological Innovations

    Efforts to promote social change are likely to meet with resistance. In the midst of rapid scientific and technological innovations, many people are frightened by the demands of an ever-changing society Moreover, certain individuals and groups have a stake in maintaining the existing state of affairs. Thus they resist such changes.

    ii) Vested Interests

    The term vested interests refer to those people or groups who will suffer in the event of social change and thus resist such change. For example, the American Medical Association (AMA) took strong stand against National Health Insurance and the professionalization of midwifery which they felt could threaten the preeminent position of doctors as deliverers of babies.

    iii) Economic Factors

    Economic factors play an important role in resistance to social change. For example, it can be expensive for manufacturers to meet high standards for the safety of products and workers, and for the protection of the environment. They may resist social change by cutting corners or by pressuring the government to ease regulations.

    iv) Communities and their Vested Interests,

    Communities, too, protect their vested interests, often in the name of “protecting property values.” Some communities protest the location of governmental projects in their area because of encroachment on their property. They may resist crude oil pipes, electricity lines, water dams, prisons, power stations etc. The targeted community may not challenge the need for the facility, but may simply insist that it be located elsewhere. The “not in my backyard” attitude has become so common that it is almost impossible for policymakers to find acceptable locations for facilities such as hazardous waste dumps (Jasper 1997).

    v) Cultural Factors

    Like economic factors, cultural factors frequently shape resistance to change. There are two aspects of culture: Material culture and nonmaterial culture. Material culture includes inventions, artifacts, and technology. Nonmaterial culture includes ideas, norms, communications, and social organization. One cannot devise methods for controlling and utilizing new technology before the introduction of a technique. Thus, nonmaterial culture typically must respond to changes in material culture. There is culture lag which refers to the period of maladjustment when the nonmaterial culture is still struggling to adapt to new material conditions. One example is the Internet. Its rapid uncontrolled growth raises questions about whether to regulate it, and if so, how much?

    In certain cases, changes in material culture can strain the relationships between social institutions. For example, new means of birth control have been developed in recent decades. Large families are no longer economically necessary, nor are they commonly endorsed by social norms. But certain religious faiths, among them Roman Catholicism, continue to extol large families and to disapprove methods of limiting family size, such as contraception and abortion. This issue represents a lag between aspects of material culture (technology) and nonmaterial culture (religious beliefs). Conflicts may also emerge between religion and other social institutions, such as government and the educational system, over the dissemination of birth control and family-planning information (Riley 1994 cited in Richards, 2006).

    Conductive Forces of Change

    In their own contribution, Harambos and Holborn, (2004) explained the following as conductive forces of change:

    i) Cultural forces.
    ii) Religious forces.

    iii) Economic forces.

    iv) Scientific forces.
    v) Technological forces.
    vi) Physical environment.

    vii) Social Inequality.
    viii) Dissatisfaction with existing occurrence.

    Social Movements and Change in Contemporary Nigeria.

    The Bring Back Our Girls movement was started by Obiageli Ezekwesili, former Federal Minister of Education of Nigeria and Vice President of the African division of World Bank at a rally in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It spread to social media via the millions of Nigerians and Nigerian-Americans on twitter who were joined by social justice advocates all over the world.
    Since colonial times, Nigerian authorities have feared a certain type of civic association – that sort which binds Nigerians together as citizens and transcends ethnic and confessional affiliations. The colonial authorities and their successors in military dictatorships used divide-and-rule tactics to polarise such movements. Historically, Nigerian governments have deployed their most repressive measures against such civic movements, like the colonial era anti-tax campaigners, demonstrators against the Babangida regime’s Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) and Occupy Nigeria protesters. Any movement that transcends the lines of class, ethnicity and creed is deemed dangerous because it can match the ecumenism of the ruling elite and is a viable countervailing force to their misrule.

    The BBOG movement, though small, fits this profile. It has united the denizens of a remote North-Eastern community on the fringes of national consciousness with public-spirited middle class urbanites. The group is multi-ethnic, non-partisan and post-sectarian. It cannot be pigeonholed as a sectional association seeking concessions or patronage from the state. Indeed, governing elites are comfortable with groups that demand patronage and terrified by movements that insist that they do their jobs. BBOG cannot be described as being motivated by anything other than civic solidarity and empathy. These activists are not hungry mercenary malcontents of the rent-a-crowd variety favoured by government whose beefs are an exercise in gastronomic wish-fulfillment. The ties that bind the grieving parents of Chibok with their advocates are forged from their common humanity and common citizenship.

    The Bring Back Our Girls movement is a demand by Nigerians for good governance from our officials. It is our “Nigerian Spring”, if you will. Not only must the government fulfill their duties as protectors of the nation and bring back our girls, they must also begin to take the matter of national security seriously and tackle all the issues that make it easy for a group of men to take up arms and terrorize a nation.

    Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)

    The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) is one of the most visible armed groups based in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region. It is a loose coalition of armed groups partly responsible for disrupting oil-production and kidnappings in the Niger Delta over the last several years. It emerged in late 2005-early 2006, targeting the oil infrastructure in the area, and abducting and holding oil workers for ransom. The group claimed to be fighting for local control of oil resources in the region. However, it was also accused of being engaged in criminal activities, committing acts of extortion and stealing oil for its own benefit. Multiple sources note MEND’s “secretive” nature and the scarce amount of information available on the group’s organizational structure, leadership and membership numbers. Various sources note that multiple groups or regional factions may be operating either independently or autonomously under the MEND name or that MEND itself may be an umbrella coalition of different groups. Ike Okonta, a Fellow at Oxford University and the author of Behind the Mask: Explaining the Emergence of the MEND Militia in Nigeria’s Oil-Bearing Niger Delta, interviewed some of its declared members directly and describes MEND as not so much an “organisation” but an idea in which many civic, communal, and political groups, each with its own local specificity and grievances, have bought into.

    It was, however, unclear who MEND represented since prominent figures in the Niger Delta vehemently denied association with MEND and expressed concerns that any negotiations conducted by MEND with the GON would only serve to secure the personal and political future of those at the negotiating table while neglecting the real needs of the people of the Niger Delta.

    The ceasefire agreed to by elements of MEND was allegedly a response to the release on 13 July 2009 under the terms of the GON’s 25 June 2009 amnesty offer to Niger Delta militants of Henry Okah, a man linked to a faction of MEND, and variously described as a leader or a chief arms supplier, who was on trial for treason and gun running.

    Allegedly speaking for the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), self-identified spokesperson “Jomo Gbomo” announced 30 January 2010 the end of MEND’s October 25, 2009, cease-fire. Although the exact identity of Jomo Gbomo remained a mystery, little doubt remains that he was closely associated with or may be Henry Okah himself. The extent to which Okah can command and control the key militant leaders such as “Tompolo,” “Boyloaf” or “Ateke Tom” remained dubious.

    Jomo Gbomo justified the action by the GON’s alleged failure to adequately address the grievances of Niger Delta inhabitants. He described the post-amnesty program as “bribing a few thugs” and “giving alms to the youth.” He denounced as “preposterous” the GON’s definition of “oil producing communities” which, he claimed, would treat communities in northern states through which the pipelines to the Kaduna Refinery pass as “oil producing communities.”
    Social change in Nigerian context can be looks from the changes that are occur in various aspect of human life from angle of social system, economic system and political institutions where adjustment can be obtained through nonviolent method peacefully to change nature of lives from bad to good .Various social change movement has been established in Nigeria like programs aimed at promoting the lives of rural peoples like Green Revolution of Former President Shagari administration, Operation Feed the Nation of President Olusegun Obasanjo, Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) by former Military government of General Badamasi Babangida, Movement of Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) and current issue of mind setting change of lives of peoples from North-East Zone in State like Maiduguri, Yobe and Adamawa State advocated by brings back our girls and other civil society groups has result to the formation of North-East Zone Commission signed by President Muhammadu Buhari in 2017 to better lives of peoples in the zones as a result of insurgency attacks by Islamic Extremist called Boko Haram. Secondly, majority of population of Nigeria are living in rural area and are also deprived of basic essential facilities for good living in the rural communities that lead to many youth living rural area coming big cities to earn a living but this king rural-urban migration lead to increase crime rate and depilation of little available facilities in the urban areas.

    The paper recommended the following things to consider in the process of advocating for changes and resolving violence in the Nigerian Society.
    i. Changes that an individual, group or society wills pursuit will be transformative changes that will bring positive changes to the lives of the society.
    ii. Government at all level should accountable and responsible to the duties as enshrined in the constitution to have a functional and responsible government that can meet for yearning aspirations of every Nigeria’s.
    iii. Choosing non-violent means as a best method of attaining the desired goal of change in the society.
    iv. Societal –reorientation of Nigerian Citizens to live in peace and harmony with one another at individual, groups or ethnic identities.
    v. Teaching peace education as part of the curriculum component at all level of knowledge.
    vi. Providing policies that promote agriculture and provide other social facilities needed in the rural areas to have a good living standard.
    vii. Training professionals who have skills to reconcile differences
    viii. Channeling grievances for the need of change to appropriate channels.

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