Homicide and other forms of violence persist at high levels in Rio de Janeiro. This violence overwhelmingly affects low-income, young black men. Past research has rarely examined the relationship of this violence to gender norms nor has it focused on the interplay between urban violence and family and intimate part- ner violence (IPV). While most studies focus on pathways into violence, only a few studies examine at factors that encourage nonviolence.
In favelas3 and other low-income, marginalized neighborhoods in Rio de Janei- ro, boys are exposed from an early age to multiple forms of violence in the house- hold and in their communities. At critical points in life, boys and young men who lack attractive economic opportunities are invited to participate in drug trafficking and, oftentimes, encouraged to use arms or use violence in everyday life.